Antisense Therapy is Changing Views on Diseases
Summary: Oligonucleotides are now being used as treatment options.
With the help of radical technological breakthroughs, oligonucleotides, or oligos, are being used for therapeutic purposes. With the constant clamoring of how oligos can be used as a type of agent that will help deliver positive benefits to patients, it is now becoming more apparent that this development is approaching a new type of therapy.
The First Antisense Therapeutic Agent
When the first antisense oligonucleotide was made available to the public, it benefitted immunocomprised patients that suffered from cytomegalovirus retinitis. Through various clinical trials, this therapeutic agent helped thousands of patients around the world increase their quality of life.
Research and Study
Years of experimenting and trial and error has led to oligonucleotides being utilized in the form of treatment. This has benefitted both patient and scientists, being that it has become a foundation for future health endeavors to come. With such success, researchers can now incorporate what they created into new developmental drugs that can perhaps target some of the more major diseases and viruses that continue to plague the globe.
A New Beginning
This is only the beginning for oligonucleotides. Through the process of oligo synthesis, researchers will eventually develop more potent drugs that have a chance of becoming more than just a research item. It´s encouraging to see as the world has a chance to not only benefit from this drug, but also as a pinnacle of hope in that deadly diseases can be halted or even destroyed.
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The Role of Molecular Beacon Probes in RNA and DNA
Summary: Interest in molecular beacon probes is rapidly increasing.
It has been known that molecular beacons have started arousing interest due their continuous readout, and outstanding spatial resolution when observed in real time. These kinds of dual-labeled probes have the ability to differentiate between two types of bound and unbound RNA and DNA in living cells. Furthermore, they have been used as research tools to sense both DNA and RNA. Now, there are both advantages and disadvantages when using these probes as a method for detecting nucleic acids.
Nucleic acids play a pivotal role in biological activity. They have also helped researchers study the evolution of biology, the analysis of genes, and disease diagnosis. Furthermore, oligonucleotides that have a unique type of sugar backbone can also be replicated in vitro to achieve excellent sensitivity and selectivity in regards to synthesis technology.
The Role of Molecular Beacon Probes
A large number of molecular beacon probes that have been produced in the laboratory can be used to treat a wide array of analysis with high affinity. This goes on to prove that oligonucleotide probes that have different sugar backbones can be used in the detection of nuclear acid. The two most studied XNAs currently being looked at are peptide nucleic acid and locked nucleic acid. This is not to say that other XNAs do not play an important role in the field of nucleic acids, as they largely impact how nuclear acids function. The use of a molecular beacon probe in conjunction with nucleic acids has helped researchers identify and quantify their roles and relationships with DNA and RNA.
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How Chemically-Modified Oligonucleotides Broadened the Research Field
Summary: Chemical modifications open up a whole new realm of opportunities for researchers.
Oligonucleotides play an impactful role in a wide range of applications in fields like molecular biology, therapy, and biotechnology. Furthermore, they have also been studied and shaped into a therapeutic medication for viral infections. Their range of use can be further broadened through the introduction of chemical modifications in their base and structure. One of the more prevalent fields where oligonucleotides are being used in antisense therapy, where chemical modifications actually confer characteristics that would otherwise be passed on such as cellular uptake, positive pharmacokinetic properties, and more.
Broadened Research Field
Another field that utilizes oligonucleotides is the combinatorial technology research field. This area focuses more on the combination of both oligonucleotide and analogs, and their extensive employment. To sum it up, a modified oligo opens up a whole new realm of research for the scientists - and it continues to do so, creating new opportunities for the development of tools and therapeutic medication.
Conjugate oligonucleotides are resulting entities from the coupling of one or more molecules that confer certain properties that represent useful analogs. These dual-labeled probes provide a particular reactivity with nucleic acids that can either cross-link or cleave the acids in a selective way. They are also important in the detection of nonradioactive probes as well as automated sequencing. Some other useful ways in which there are intermolecular interactions within the oligo involve enhanced cellular uptake and intercalation. These molecules have been widely used in the field of molecular biology as well as diagnosis.
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Antisense Therapy is Bringing New Life to the Biomedical World
Summary: Antisense oligonucleotides are playing large roles in disease prevention.
Throughout the course of oligonucleotide history, major improvements and discoveries have been made in molecular biology that have allowed antisense therapy to thrive. This has allowed researchers to thrive in understanding diseases at the molecular level, which has essentially facilitated the development of new drugs based on a rational design. This has opened up thousands of possibilities and is only the foundation of what is yet to come.
Antisense therapy is the application of rational design based on the concept of oligonucleotide chemistry. Zamenick and Stephenson were the first to illustrate this idea and present it to the world when they demonstrated that oligonucleotides could inhibit the replication of the Rous sarcoma in the body´s cellular system. Because of this principle, it allowed researchers to approach antisense in a simple way: inhibit the expression of a targeted gene at the RNA level and attaining complimentary oligonucleotides will follow. These are what are called antisense oligonucleotides, which block the expression of the protein that is encoded by the target RNA or synthetic DNA. If the inhibited proteins are the ones related to disease, then those oligonucleotides become a new class of drugs.
With the combination of both RNA and DNA synthesis in the cellular body, there are several reactions that occur that allow scientists to gain insightful data on to how the antisense oligonucleotide can overall affect a disease. This continues to be researched as antisense therapy continues to make a mark in the medical field, with impending breakthroughs just waiting to occur.
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The Combinatorial Libraries of Oligonucleotides
Summary: To distinguish one member from another in the pool of oligos, a tagging system has been created.
Over the last ten years, there has been significant improvement in the development of compound libraries for the discovery of molecules with new binding properties. The basic premise is to ultimately shorten the effort and time associated with the search of drugs leads by creating a large combination of molecules that are tested against a certain target for a specified activity. However, there is a problem with this technique as that there lacks a proper strategy to determine the identity of the active molecules from the mess of the original pool. To solve this, researchers have developed a system that utilizes either tagged or untagged labels.
The use of these tags have established a beneficial relationship between each single member of the library and the tags itself with gives it a unique identity. Even through the process of synthetic DNA playing a role in presenting itself as a different member, these powerful tag technologies have become important tools to separate themselves from the pack. Additionally, researchers have discovered flexible and versatile ways to apply these tags to multiple areas of molecular biology, therefore expanding the real of possibility.
There is a certain strategy that makes use of modified oligos that´s called Selective Enhancement of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment, or SELEX for short. What this technique does is executes multiple cycles of selection and amplification, which results in competition between the molecules that are deemed suitable from the huge population in the pool. Essentially, the pool is separated by individual members to appropriate them to a given task (usually a binding or catalytic task).
Finding the Right Oligonucleotide Manufacturer
Oligonucleotide synthesis is essentially the synthesis of nucleic acid fragments that results in defined chemical structures with purities of different sizes. When you´re looking for the most effective modified product for your oligo synthesis, you´re going to want to narrow down the companies that you´re going to work with by high quality services that they offer. Here are some key components that you´re going to want to keep in mind when shopping around.
Quality is obviously the main concern that you´re going to have because the only way that you can validate what they claim is through user reviews or testimonials. You´re not going to have a physical sample that you get to take an in-depth look at, rather an assortment of pictures put together by the company.
Be sure that the company is specific in their details to ensure that you get exactly what you want. For example, if they´re offering single stranded or double-stranded DNA, be sure that they give you the exact number of bases as they state. Additionally, check to see if they are analyzed and quantified by both mass spectrometry as well as UV spectrophotometry. There are also certain standards that should be met by the manufacturer such as specifications and formats of the oligos.
Oligonucleotide manufacturers that deal with such delicacy should have an informative group of customer service representatives. If you´re unsure about the purchase of a product or want to validate what you´re receiving, speak with their customer service representatives and ask them specific questions such as: the research grade, their formats, packaging, etc.
Fluorescent-labeled Oligonucleotides´ Role in Genetic Diseases
Summary: Oligonucleotides aid researchers in allocating certain issues within genetic diseases.
Advanced techniques have greatly simplified labeling oligonucleotides and their conjugates. Studies have shown that they are now less tedious, more cost-efficient, and more effective than ever before. These new techniques have given researchers the ability to utilize moieties such as a fluorescent label that´s consisted of a dye or biotin. There have been huge strides taken in the development of new, and improved, labeling methods that give a more "refined" role for oligonucleotides.
What is their use?
There are some key procedures that fluorescent-dye-labeled oligonucleotides take part in, including PCR, restriction mapping, genetic research, and DNA sequencing. They have also become one of the most reliable dye attachments when it comes to either DNA or RNA synthesis.
The dye labeling of synthetic oligonucleotides is extremely important in analytical biotechniques. The production of these synthetically-dyed oligonucleotides is done in a shorter time and in high yield with a high purity.
The importance of their design translates beyond the procedures as they have proved to assist in things that surpass simple research purposes. Genetic diseases are being evaluated with these oligonucleotides and researchers are uncovering more information and details about them than ever before. The details that come from this research also affect how various treatments can be developed to help minimize the effects and even prevent lives from being consumed by the genetic disease as well. Researchers are constantly battling to find an effective cure for these global diseases and by advancing small role players such as these oligonucleotides and uncovering more about their structures in both RNA and DNA synthesis, progress can be made little by little.
Antisense Oligonucleotides for Therapeutic Research
Summary: The integration of oligonucleotides into medical research has opened up new doorways to recovery.
The mechanism of an oligonucleotide can be used for therapeutic purposes. The synthesis between the DNA and RNA polymers within the small molecular antiviral agents has been used in numerous important clinical drugs. However, the middle-man, the oligonucleotide, plays an important role in the production of these drugs as well.
The integration of oligos into antiviral therapeutic drugs has proved beneficial for both medicine and research purposes.
The Role of Antisense Oligonucleotides
Antisense oligonucleotides contribute to an agent by encoding the proteins that are vital for a virus or bacteria to survive. Essentially they assist by targeting the pathogens and supplying information necessary to eliminate foreign mRNA molecules.
By blocking the protein from synthesizing into normal cells, one can achieve information about the biological effect of the proteins. This alternate role proves that the antisense oligonucleotide is versatile and can also be utilized in a variety of situations.
The Application Process
Chemically unmodified antisense oligonucleotides will provide little to no guarantee of assistance to the subject. This is because an unmodified oligo does not provide significant antisense effect to a culture or an organism. Therefore, in order to solve this, antisense oligonucleotides must be chemically modified in order to maximize the antisense effect.
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The Significance of RNA Synthesis and Splicing
Summary: RNA synthesis shares a common origin with two ancient cells.
To understand the process of RNA synthesis and splicing, there must be an introduction on the major factors that play a large role in the entire process.
The process of RNA synthesis, or otherwise known as transcription, is a process that involves transcribing DNA sequence information into RNA information. One of the enzymes that play a significant role is known as the RNA polymerase - which essentially catalyzes the RNA synthesis process.
Biochemistry of RNA
Similar to the forms of prokaryotes and eukaryotes in terms of regulation, RNA synthesis share the same overall structure. Although there are substantial differences when it comes to polypeptides, it shares a common evolutionary origin, which is quite peculiar in that the complex regulation of the RNA synthesis looks to be derived from both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Additionally, the oligonucleotide plays a role within the RNA synthesis process as well for medical and research purposes. A modified oligo that undergoes RNA synthesis can be used to treat viruses that have threatened society through its dangerous replicating abilities.
The genomes of the human body are affected by RNA splicing. Consider this, 15% of genetics diseases are caused by various mutations that affect the overall splicing of RNA. Additionally, these same RNA units can be spliced in a different manner in a variety of localized cell types, and even at random stages of development as well. It´s important to note this because it proves that one gene can encode more than one certain type of mRNA and protein, which will provide researchers more information on the expansion of the human genome system.
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The Duties of DNA Polymers and How They Contribute To Research
Summary: The DNA polymer is an essential figure in the duplication process.
What are DNA polymers?
DNA polymerases are essentially enzymes that birth DNA molecules through the assembly of nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA. By working in conjunction with each other, usually in pairs, they have the ability to create two stands of DNA from an original DNA molecule. You can consider it almost like a duplication process. Now, the DNA polymerase´s main task it to identify and read the existing strands in order to create new strands that have the same structure and blueprint of the existing one.
DNA polymers assist during the cell duplication process through the means of being the middle-man throughout the process. Because there needs to be a copy of the original DNA molecule, so it can passed on to the daughter cells, there also needs to be a means of quality control, and the DNA polymer is the most qualified to do so.
Now, before replication can actually take place, another enzyme is required to unwind the strands of the DNA. These enzymes are known as helicases, and their primary function is to unzip the double stranded DNA so they can be encoded for duplication. Think of them as a means to create a template for the DNA molecule. For instance, in order to duplicate anything, there must be an original product that it´s based off of. Additionally, whatever´s performing the duplication or DNA synthesis needs to have a blueprint of what it´s going to look like, along with intricate details that allow the process to finish with exquisite precision.